Hematuria: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Prevention & Treatments

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In some cases, blood can leak into the urine due to urinary tract infections or kidney problems. This condition is called Hematuria and it needs to be taken seriously as it can cause a lot of complications in the future. While this can happen due to strenuous workouts or other minor problems, it can also be due to prostate cancer and you need to visit your doctor as soon as you notice such symptoms. In some cases, you can notice the blood clearly in the urine and in other cases, it will only be slightly red in colour and only a lab test will ascertain this condition. The treatment for this condition depends on what is causing the issue and you need to get treatment in the early stages to avoid further complications.

Types of Hematuria:

–  Gross Hematuria: In this situation, you may clearly see blood in the urine and in extreme cases, you may also notice blood clots. It is common to see dark coloured urine as it gets mixed with the blood cells from other organs of the body. This condition can also be painful and you need to visit your doctor immediately when you see such symptoms.

–  Microscopic Hematuria: In this situation, you may not notice any signs and this can be troublesome as you will not visit the doctor at the early stages. However, you may notice some changes in the urine and you should be careful when you are experiencing pain while passing urine. In this situation, the colour of urine does not become red and it may give confusing signals about your health condition. Only a medical examination will reveal the Hematuria condition in your body.

Symptoms of Hematuria:

In the case of Gross Hematuria, the symptoms will be obvious as there will be a clear indication of blood in the urine. While it is often red in colour, it can also be seen in other dark colours in many cases. However, in the event of Microscopic Hematuria, there will be no symptoms in most cases. Only when you go for a urine test, you will be able to diagnose the issue. In the case of pain, while passing urine, you should not take it lightly especially if it persists for a long duration. You should visit your doctor and get yourself examined thoroughly to rule out this condition.

Causes of Hematuria:

– Kidney Disease: When there is inflammation of the kidney due to an infection or other problem, you may notice blood in the urine. This is often visible and you will also notice pain while passing urine. Never neglect such symptoms and always choose medical help to treat the condition.

– Prostate problem: This condition affects men in middle age and the prostate can become enlarged due to various reasons. It results in blocking the flow of urine to a certain extent and causes severe infection in most cases.

– Cancer: In a few cases, the cause of Hematuria can be in advanced stages of cancer. In this situation, you may clearly notice blood in the urine and it will often be painful to handle the situation. This is a clear indication that something is wrong and you need immediate treatment to control cancer.

– Pyelonephritis: This condition is the result of kidney infection due to bacteria. This can sometimes get into the bloodstream and enter the kidneys causing severe infection. It can usually cause pain accompanied by symptoms of fever.

– Bladder stone: In our body, excess minerals can sometimes get concentrated when they are not eliminated properly by the kidneys. In this situation, these minerals can get deposited on the walls of the bladder and create stones. When it is not painful, you may not even notice them and this can remain in this condition for many months and even years. However, in most cases, people notice pain and it can also lead to clear symptoms of blood in the urine.

– Infection of the urinary tract: In some cases, bacteria can cause problems with the bladder and this results in blood in the urine. It is normal for people to experience pain while urinating when they are suffering from this condition. In the same manner, the urine may also have a strong and unnatural smell. Apart from that, there may be no changes in urine colour in most cases and you will get confirmation about the problem only after a urine test.

Diagnosis of Hematuria:

–  Urine test: The diagnosis of Hematuria begins with a Urine test as this will be able to ascertain the presence of blood in the urine in a clear manner. Remember that in every case, the blood may not be obviously visible in the urine due to changes in colour. Even in the case of Microscopic Hematuria, you will notice that there are hardly any changes in urine colour and only a urine test will determine this problem. Apart from that, this can also help doctors to identify problems with kidneys and any excess minerals present in the urine will give them a clear indication of kidney problems. In the same manner, even infections with the urinary tract can be identified with this problem.

–  CT and MRI scan: This is required when the urine test is not able to identify the problem exactly and this will give further insights about problems with the kidney and urinary tract. In most cases, this will be done alongside a urine test and doctors will have a clear understanding of your condition in this manner.

–  Cystoscopy: This method is used when other methods do not yield proper results. In this procedure, a small camera fitted to a tube is inserted into the bladder and this will give a complete view of the inner region. In this manner, infection of the urinary tract can be identified and treatment can be started based on the findings of this test.

Prevention of Hematuria:

– It is not possible to completely avoid this problem as this is more of a symptom and you need to take precautionary measures to avoid the causes of this problem.

– In this regard, your first focus should be on preventing infections of the urinary tract as this is often the primary cause of this condition. You should always make it a point to drink lots of water as this will help you to reduce urinary tract infections in the future. In the same manner, it is also a good idea to urinate after having intercourse as this will clear any infectious things in the vaginal region. Also, reduce the use of any vaginal hygiene items that are available in the market as they may cause infections in some cases. Also, maintain proper hygiene while using public toilets as this can also lead to infections.

– Yet another major cause of Hematuria is the problem with kidneys and you should be worried about kidney stones. Make sure that you eat a balanced diet that will be easy to digest and reduce your consumption of salt. Remember that excessive salt in the body can put a burden on the kidneys and even lead to kidney failure in many cases. Even heavy amounts of artificial protein supplements will put your kidneys at risk and this can lead to blood in the urine in many cases.

– In extreme cases, this can also be the result of cancer in your body and you need to get yourself examined for bladder and kidney cancer which are the primary causes of Hematuria. It is a good idea to stop smoking as this can easily cause cancer in your body and accumulate lots of toxic chemicals in your body.

– Always maintain a healthy lifestyle and eat a balanced diet that will give you enough nutrition to fight against various infections. You should also make it a point to work out regularly as this can improve your overall health condition by a huge margin.

Treatment for Hematuria:

– There is no specific treatment for this problem as this is a mere symptom of other conditions. In this regard, the emphasis is given to treating the condition that is causing Hematuria.

– When Hematuria is due to infection of the urinary tract, proper antibiotics are administered to treat the infection. This will reduce the infection within a few days and this will be more than enough in most cases. However, in a few instances, the infection may come back again in a few months and you need to get treated at a later stage.

– If Hematuria is caused due to kidney stones, the stage of the disease is properly ascertained to begin the treatment. If the problem is still in the initial stages, drinking plenty of fluids will give relief within a few weeks. However, in later stages, medication may be required to treat the condition. When the kidney stones are very large, it can become painful and even surgery may be used to treat the problem. Even noninvasive methods are also effective when it comes to treating kidney stones.

– If you are having Hematuria due to prostate problems, you need to ascertain the degree of the problem and seek appropriate treatment for the condition. In most cases, medication along with other non-invasive methods are effective to provide long-term relief from this condition.

– Remember that Hematuria can also be due to cancer and this condition can become life-threatening if it is not treated at the right time. You should understand that treating cancer also depends on the stage of the disease and different methods are used based on this factor. In extreme cases, surgery along with radiation and chemotherapy may be required to treat cancers.


You need to understand that this is a symptom and the actual problem lies with the cause of this problem. In this situation, when you neglect the symptoms, the actual cause may continue to grow and it can create further complications in the body. In this regard, you need to begin the treatment for the urinary tract infection or kidney problem that is causing these symptoms in your body. Remember that this can also be due to cancer and neglecting the symptoms means that cancer can go into the advanced stage and even become fatal in extreme conditions. It can also lead to excessive blood loss in many cases and you need to be alert about the symptoms in the early stages and get proper treatment.


Myth #1-  Hematuria is a disease: To begin with, you need to clearly understand that Hematuria is a symptom and is caused by other diseases. You should always focus on what is causing these symptoms and treat them as there is no way in which you can treat this symptom.

Myth #2-  Hematuria has visible symptoms always: This need not be the case and when you are suffering from Microscopic Hematuria, you may not have visible symptoms. You may only notice some pain during urination and only a urine test will be able to detect blood in urine in this situation. However, in the case of Gross Hematuria, you can obviously see blood and you may even notice blood clots in urine in extreme cases.


There is no need to panic when you notice blood in urine as this can be even due to minor infections of the kidney or the urinary tract. In this situation, you can easily get relief within few weeks after taking treatment for these conditions. However, in rare cases, you may develop Hematuria due to cancer and this is when you will notice extreme complications. At this stage, it becomes difficult to treat the condition as it usually happens in the advanced stages of cancer. You can, however, get suitable treatment and get some relief from the symptoms. Also, remember that you can avoid this situation by leading a healthy lifestyle and avoiding smoking. On the other hand, you need to understand that smoking can lead to the accumulation of toxic chemicals in the body that can cause various infections. When you maintain healthy eating habits, you will have fewer problems with the kidney and your body will not easily develop infections in the urinary tract.


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